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DRAFT

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

SMALL INTERCONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PROGRAM

MALMSTROM AIR FORCE BASE, MONTANA

UNITED STATES AIR FORCE JUNE 1987

DRAFT

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT SMALL INTERCONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PROGRAM

Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

United States Air Force June 1987

Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2016

https://archive.org/details/draftenvironment1987unit

COVER SHEET

DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT SMALL INTERCONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PROGRAM MALMSTROM AFB, MONTANA

a. Responsible Agency: U.S. Air Force

b. Proposed Action: Deployment of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) at Malmstrom Air Force Base (AFB) in Montana.

c. Written comments and inquiries on this document should be received by 21 August

1987 and directed to: Director of Environmental Planning, AFRCE-BMS/DEV,

Norton AFB, San Bernardino, California, 92409-6448.

d. Designation: Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS).

e. Abstract: The Air Force proposes to deploy 200 Small ICBMs within the 341st

Strategic Missile Wing at Malmstrom AFB, Montana beginning in 1992. The missiles would be carried and protected by special vehicles called Hard Mobile Launchers (HMLs). The HMLs would be deployed within expanded fenced areas that surround existing Minuteman launch facilities. Currently, 200 launch facilities, located throughout an 8,500-square-mile (sq mi) area in north-central Montana, are supported by Malmstrom AFB. Some HMLs would also be located at Malmstrom AFB for training, maintenance, and repair purposes. Land would be acquired adjacent to existing launch facilities to accommodate expansions, and adjacent to the base to accommodate new military family housing and a HML vehicle operations training area. Existing explosive safety restrictive easements surrounding launch facilities would be expanded. To facilitate transportation of HMLs to and from deployment sites, the road system (including bridges and culverts) used for the Minuteman program may be improved where necessary to enhance vehicle clearance and weight-bearing capability. A Proposed Action, three system alternatives, and the No Action Alternative are analyzed in this DEIS. The Proposed Action provides for the deployment of 200 HMLs in earth-covered igloos (arched shelters) at 100 launch facilities. The Proposed Action provides military family housing on land to be acquired adjacent to Malmstrom AFB. Two housing options are also analyzed under the Proposed Action: one would provide 50 percent of programmed military family housing, the other would provide no new onbase family housing. System Alternative 1 provides for the deployment of 200 HMLs at 100 launch facilities in pre-engineered buildings and assumes the minimum operations personnel requirement of all alternatives. Alternative 2 provides for the deployment of 250 HMLs at 125 launch facilities in a manner similar to the Proposed Action, and represents the maximum manpower requirement of all alternatives analyzed. Alternative 3 provides for deployment of 200 HMLs at 200 launch facilities in pre-engineered buildings. Potential environmental impacts associated with these actions are considered in the DEIS in the following environmental categories: socioeconomics, utilities, transportation, land use, visual resources, cultural and paleontological resources, biological resources and threatened and endangered species, water resources, geology and soils, air quality, noise. Safety considerations are also discussed. This site-specific DEIS follows the November 1986 publication of the Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Small ICBM program which compared regional-level impacts of three alternative basing modes and numerous alternative deployment locations.

1

CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.0 PROGRAM OVERVIEW 1-1

1.1 Environmental Impact Analysis Process 1-1

1.1.1 Structure of the Environmental Impact Statement 1-2

1.2 Purpose and Need 1-2

1.3 System Description and Location 1-3

1.3.1 Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile and 1-3

the Hard Mobile Launcher

1.3.2 Operations Concept 1-3

1.3.3 Proposed Action 1-6

1.3.4 System Alternatives and Siting Options 1-18

1.3.5 No Action Alternative 1-20

1.3.6 Summary of the Proposed Action and Alternatives 1-20

1.4 Other Future Air Force Programs at Malmstrom Air Force Base 1-21

1.4.1 The KC-135R Air Refueling Mission .1-21

1.4.2 Peacekeeper in Rail Garrison 1-21

1.5 Deployment Activities and Requirements 1-23

1.5.1 Program Schedule 1-23

1.5.2 Facility Construction 1-24

1.5.3 Assembly and Checkout 1-25

1.5.4 Program Resource Requirements 1-25

1.6 Decommissioning 1-30

1.7 Public Scoping Process 1-30

1.7.1 Overview of the Scoping Process 1-30

1.7.2 Summary of Scoping Issues 1-31

1.8 Authorizing Actions/Procedures 1-32

1.9 Potential Mitigation Measures 1-32

2.0 COMPARISON OF THE PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERNATIVES 2-1

2.1 Socioeconomics 2-5

2.1.1 Economic Base 2-5

2.1.2 Demographics 2-5

2.1.3 Housing 2-6

2.1.4 Education 2-7

2.1.5 Public Services 2-7

2.1.6 Public Finance 2-7

2.2 Utilities 2-8

2.2.1 Potable Water Treatment and Distribution, Wastewater, 2-8

and Solid Waste

2.2.2 Energy Utilities 2-9

2.3 Transportation 2-9

2.3.1 Roads 2-9

2.3.2 Public Transportation, Railroads, and Airports 2-10

2.4 Land Use 2-10

2.4.1 Urban Land Use 2-11

2.4.2 Rural Land Use 2-11

ii

CONTENTS

2.5 Recreation 2-12

2.5.1 Regional Recreation 2-12

2.5.2 Local Recreation 2-13

2.6 Visual Resources 2-13

2.7 Cultural and Paleontological Resources 2-14

2.7.1 Prehistoric Resources 2-14

2.7.2 Historic and Architectural Resources 2-15

2.7.3 Native American Resources 2-15

2.7.4 Paleontological Resources 2-16

2.8 Biological Resources and Threatened and Endangered Species 2-16

2.8.1 Vegetation 2-16

2.8.2 Wildlife 2-17

2.8.3 Aquatic Habitats 2-18

2.8.4 Unique and Sensitive Habitats 2-18

2.8.5 Threatened and Endangered Species 2-18

2.9 Water Resources 2-19

2.9.1 Water Use 2-19

2.9.2 Surface Water Hydrology and Quality 2-20

2.9.3 Groundwater Hydrology and Quality 2-20

2.10 Geology and Soils 2-21

2.10.1 Geologic Hazards 2-21

2.10.2 Geologic Resources 2-22

2.10.3 Soil Erosion 2-22

2.11 Air Quality 2-23

2.12 Noise 2-24

3.0 AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT 3-1

3.1 Socioeconomics 3-1

3.1.1 Resource Description 3-1

3.1.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-2

3.1.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-5

3.2 Utilities 3-37

3.2.1 Resource Description 3-37

3.2.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-38

3.2.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-40

3.3 Transportation 3-61

3.3.1 Resource Description 3-61

3.3.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-62

3.3.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-66

3.4 Land Use 3-77

3.4.1 Resource Description 3-77

3.4.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-77

3.4.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-78

3.5 Recreation 3-90

3.5.1 Resource Description 3-90

3.5.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-90

3.5.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-92

111

CONTENTS

3.6 Visual Resources 3-97

3.6.1 Resource Description 3-97

3.6.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-97

3.6.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-98

3.7 Cultural and Paleontological Resources 3-102

3.7.1 Resource Description 3-102

3.7.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-103

3.7.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-106

3.8 Biological Resources and Threatened and Endangered Species 3-126

3.8.1 Resource Description 3-126

3.8.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-127

3.8.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-130

3.9 Water Resources 3-152

3.9.1 Resource Description 3-152

3.9.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-152

3.9.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-154

3.10 Geology and Soils 3-170

3.10.1 Resource Description 3-170

3.10.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-170

3.10.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-174

3.11 Air Quality 3-186

3.11.1 Resource Description 3-186

3.11.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-186

3.11.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-188

3.12 Noise 3-196

3.12.1 Resource Description 3-196

3.12.2 General Analysis Methodology 3-196

3.12.3 Existing and Future Baseline Conditions 3-198

4.0 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES 4-1

4.1 Socioeconomics 4-14

4.1.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-14

4.1.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-25

4.1.3 Impacts of Alternatives .4-61

4.1.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-78

4.1.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-80

4.1.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-81

4.1.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-84

4.1.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-85

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement

of Long-Term Productivity

4.2 Utilities 4-86

4.2.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-86

4.2.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-90

4.2.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-104

4.2.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-110

4.2.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-112

4.2.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-112

4.2.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-113

IV

CONTENTS

4.2.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-113

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement of Long-Term Productivity

4.3 Transportation 4-114

4.3.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-114

4.3.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-120

4.3.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-133

4.3.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-135

4.3.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-136

4.3.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-136

4.3.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-137

4.3.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-137

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement

of Long-Term Productivity

4.4 Land Use 4-138

4.4.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-138

4.4.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-143

4.4.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-150

4.4.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-152

4.4.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-152

4.4.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-152

4.4.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-152

4.8.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-153

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement

of Long-Term Productivity

4.5 Recreation 4-154

4.5.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-154

4.5.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-158

4.5.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-163

4.5.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-165

4.5.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-166

4.5.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-166

4.5.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-167

4.5.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-167

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement

of Long-Term Productivity

4.6 Visual Resources 4-168

4.6.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-168

4.6.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-171

4.6.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-176

4.6.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-177

4.6.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-177

4.6.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-177

4.6.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-177

4.6.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-177

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement

of Long-Term Productivity

4.7 Cultural and Paleontological Resources 4-178

4.7.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-178

4.7.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-182

V

CONTENTS

4.7.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-192

4.7.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-194

4.7.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-195

4.7.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-195

4.7.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-196

4.7.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-196

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement

of Long-Term Productivity

4.8 Biological Resources and Threatened and Endangered Species 4-197

4.8.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-197

4.8.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-204

4.8.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-219

4.8.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-222

4.8.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-222

4.8.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-223

4.8.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-224

4.8.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-224

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement

of Long-Term Productivity

4.9 Water Resources 4-225

4.9.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-225

4.9.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-230

4.9.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-243

4.9.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-247

4.9.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-248

4.9.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-248

4.9.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-249

4.9.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-249

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement

of Long-Term Productivity

4.10 Geology and Soils 4-250

4.10.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-250

4.10.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-255

4.10.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-264

4.10.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-266

4.10.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-267

4.10.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-267

4.10.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-268

4.10.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-268

Man's Environment and Maintenance and Enhancement of Long-Term Productivity

4.11 Air Quality 4-269

4.11.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-269

4.11.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-274

4.11.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-279

4.11.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-279

4.11.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative 4-280

4.11.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-280

4.11.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-280

VI

CONTENTS

4.11.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-280

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement of Long-Term Productivity

4.12 Noise 4-281

4.12.1 Impact Analysis Methodology 4-281

4.12.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action 4-284

4.12.3 Impacts of Alternatives 4-287

4.12.4 Cumulative Impacts 4-288

4.12.5 Impacts of No Action Alternative 4-288

4.12.6 Potential Mitigation Measures 4-288

4.12.7 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 4-288

4.12.8 Relationship Between the Local Short-Term Use of 4-288

Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement

of Long-Term Productivity

5.0 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 5-1

5.1 System Safety Program 5-1

5.1.1 System Hardware 5-2

5.1.2 Personnel Training and Certification 5-4

5.1.3 System Safety Group 5-5

5.2 Emergencey Operations 5-5

5.2.1 Air Force Contingency Plans 5-5

5.2.2 Abnormal Conditions 5-6

5.3 Case Study 5-9

5.3.1 Wind Dispersion Models 5-9

5.3.2 Environmental and Human Health Effects 5-10

5.6 Conclusion 5-20

5.4 Conclusions 5-20

6.0 AUTHORIZING ACTIONS 6-1

7.0 LIST OF PREPARERS 7-1

8.0 LIST OF RECIPIENTS 8-1

8.1 Elected Officials 8-1

8.1.1 U.S. Senate 8-1

8.1.2 U.S. House of Representatives 8-1

8.1.3 State of Montana Officials 8-1

8.1.4 Local Officials 8-2

8.2 Public Agencies 8-3

8.2.1 Federal Agencies 8-3

8.2.2 State Agencies 8-4

8.2.3 Local Agencies 8-4

8.3 Native American Groups 8-5

8.4 Other Organizations 8-5

8.5 Individuals That Attended Scoping Meetings 8-6

9.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9-1

vii

CONTENTS

10.0 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS 10-1

10.1 Terms 10-1

10.2 Acronyms 10-32

10.3 Units of Measurement 10-35

APPENDICES

A Existing Environmental Conditions at Launch Facilities in Montana A-1

B.l Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement B-1

B.2 Programmatic Agreement B-8

C Results of Consultation With the U.S. Fish and Wildlife C-1

Service in Accordance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

1.3. 1- 1 Small ICBM 1-4

1.3. 1- 2 Hard Mobile Launcher in Deployed Configuration (Conceptual) 1-4

1.3. 3- 1 Location of Malmstrom AFB and Minuteman Deployment Area 1-8

in Montana

1.3. 3- 2 Proposed Small ICBM Facilities at Malmstrom AFB, Montana 1-12

1.3. 3- 3 Launch Facility Modification Concept for the Small ICBM 1-15

1.3. 3- 4 Network of Public Roads Used by Transporter Erector-Emplacer 1-15

Vehicles for Access to Malmstrom AFB Minuteman Launch Facilities

1.4. 2- 1 Peacekeeper in Rail Garrison Basing Concept 1-22

1.4. 2- 2 Approximate Location of Potential Peacekeeper in Rail 1-22

Garrison Technical Facilities at Malmstrom AFB, Montana

2.0- 1 Collective Summary of Local and Regional Impacts Associated 2-2

With the Proposed Small ICBM Program in Montana

2.0- 2 Summary of Site Impacts Associated With Proposed Small ICBM 2-3

Construction and Operations at Launch Facilities in Montana

3. 1.3- 1 Military and Appropriated Fund Civilian Employment 3-8

at Malmstrom AFB, 1961 to 1986

3. 1.3- 2 Malmstrom AFB Military Population in the Great Falls 3-12

Urban Area, 1961 to 1986

3. 1.3- 3 City of Great Falls and Cascade County City/County 3-14

Planning Divisions

3. 2. 3- 1 Utility Installations in Great Falls 3-41

3. 2. 3- 2 Major Electrical Transmission Lines in the Region of Influence 3-50

3. 2. 3- 3 Electric Utility Service Areas in the Region of Influence 3-51

3. 2. 3- 4 Natural Gas, Oil, and Product Pipelines 3-57

3. 3. 2- 1 Region of Influence for Transportation 3-63

3. 3. 2- 2 Operational Characteristics at Various Levels of Service 3-64

3. 3. 2- 3 Railroads and Commercial Airports Within the 3-67

Transportation Region of Influence

3. 3. 3- 1 Great Falls Transportation Network 3-68

3. 4. 3- 1 Generalized Urban Land Use of Malmstrom AFB and 3-81

Vicinity, 1986

3. 4. 3- 2 Generalized Rural Land Use of the Region of Influence 3-84

3. 4. 3- 3 Launch Facilities With Occupied Structures Within a 3-89

2,000-Foot Study Area

3. 5.3- 1 Physiographic Features Associated With Regional Recreation 3-39

in the Region of Influence

3. 6. 3- 1 Deployment Area Landscape Characteristic Provinces, 3-99

Launch Facilities, and Principal Highways

3. 7. 2- 1 Region of Influence for Cultural and Paleontological Resources 3-104

3. 7. 3- 1 Prehistoric Cultural Chronologies for the Malmstrom AFB 3-107

Study Area

3. 7.3- 2 Projected Prehistoric Site Sensitivity in the Study Area, 3-113

North-Central Montana

3. 7.3- 3 Location of Native American Groups in Montana 3-120

3. 7.3- 4 Geologic Map of North-Central Montana 3-122

IX

LIST OF FIGURES

3. 8. 3- 1 Mule Deer High-Density Wintering Habitat in the Deployment Area . .3-136

3. 8. 3- 2 White-Tailed Deer Wintering Habitat in the Deployment Area 3-137

3. 8. 3- 3 Pronghorn Wintering Habitat in the Deployment Area 3-138

3. 8.3- 4 Elk Wintering Habitat and Calving Areas in the Deployment Area . . .3-139

3. 8.3- 5 Bighorn Sheep Wintering Habitat and Lambing Areas in the 3-140

Deployment Area

3. 8. 3- 6 Distribution of Stream Value Classes in the Deployment Area 3-143

3. 8.3- 7 Approximate Locations of Threatened and Endangered Species in . . . .3-146

the Deployment Area

3. 9.3- 1 Surface Water Features in the Region of Influence 3-156

3. 9.3- 2 Designated Uses of the Major Streams in the Region of Influence . . . .3-160

3. 9.3- 3 Principal Aquifers and Major Springs in the Region of Influence 3-164

3. 9.3- 4 Schematic Location of Major Diversions and Water-Short 3-167

Areas in the Malmstrom AFB Region of Influence

3.10.2- 1 Region of Influence for Soil Erosion, Geologic Hazards, 3-172

and Energy Resources

3.10.2- 2 Region of Influence for Aggregate Resources 3-173

3.10.3- 1 Seismicity and Major Structural Features in the 3-176

Malmstrom AFB Deployment Area

3.10.3- 2 Seismic Intensity-Magnitude Scale 3-177

3.10.3- 3 Landslides and Landslide-Prone Bedrock Areas 3-179

3.10.3- 4 Aggregate Resources in the Malmstrom AFB Deployment Area 3-180

3.10.3- 5 Oil and Gas Resources and Leasing Data for the 3-183

Malmstrom AFB Deployment Area

3.11.2- 1 Region of Influence for Air Quality 3-187

3. 11. -3-2 Great Falls Air Quality Monitoring Sites 3-191

3.12.2- 1 Region of Influence for Noise .3-197

3.12.3- 1 Noise Monitoring Sites In and Around Malmstrom AFB 3-200

3.12.3- 2 Sound Levels of Common Equipment and Environmental Conditions . .3-202

4.0- 1 Site Impacts Associated With Proposed Small ICBM Military 4-5

Construction in Montana

4.0- 2 Collective Summary of Site Impacts Associated With Road 4-13

and Bridge Improvements for the Proposed Small ICBM Program in Montana

4.1. 2- 1 Local and Regional Impacts to Socioeconomics Associated With 4-27

the Proposed Small ICBM Program in Montana

4.1. 2- 2 Military-Civilian Composition of Program Inmigration, 1990-2000 4-34

4.1. 2- 3 Projected Changes in Offbase Housing Demand and Supply 4-38

for the Great Falls Urban Area, 1990-2000

4.1. 2- 4 Great Falls Public Schools Projected Program-Related Enrollment 4-43

by Grade Levels, 1990-2000

4. 1.3- 1 1990-2000 Total Direct and Secondary Employment for the 4-63

Proposed Action and Alternatives 1, 2, and 3

4. 1.3- 2 Projected Changes in Offbase Housing Demand and Supply 4-66

for the Great Falls Urban Area, 1990-2000

4.1. 3- 3 1990-2000 Small ICBM Population Inmigration for the 4-68

Proposed Action and Alternatives 1, 2, and 3

X

LIST OF FIGURES

4.2. 2- 1 Local Impacts to Utilities Associated With the Proposed 4-94

Small ICBM Program in Montana

4.3. 2- 1 Local Impacts to Transportation Associated With the 4-121

Proposed Small ICBM Program in Montana

4.3. 2- 2 Selected Road Segments in the Great Falls Urban Area 4-126

4.3. 2- 3 Estimated Number of Hard Mobile Launcher Trips per 4-132

Year Along Major Transporter/Erector Routes

4.4. 2- 1 Local Impacts to Urban Land Use Associated With the 4-144

Proposed Small ICBM Program in Montana

4.4. 2- 2 Summary of Site Impacts to Rural Land Use Associated With 4-145

Proposed Small ICBM Construction and Operations at Launch Facilities in Montana

4.5. 2- 1 Impacts to Regional and Local Recreation Associated With the 4-159

Proposed Small ICBM Program in Montana

4. 6. 2- 1 Summary of Site Impacts to Visual Resources Associated With 4-172

Proposed Small ICBM Construction and Operations at Launch Facilities in Montana

4.6. 2- 2 Simulation of Launch Facility A-6, Mountains Landscape 4-173

Characteristic Province

4. 6. 2- 3 Simulation of Launch Facility G-2, Rolling Uplands 4-173

Landscape Characteristic Province

4. 6. 2- 4 Simulation of Launch Facility Q-20, Planar Uplands 4-173

Landscape Characteristic Province

4. 7. 2- 1 Summary of Site Impacts to Cultural and Paleontological 4-183

Resources Associated With the Proposed Small ICBM Program in Montana

4. 8. 2- 1 Summary of Site Impacts to Biological Resources and 4-205

Threatened and Endangered Species Associated With Proposed Small ICBM Construction and Operations at Launch Facilities in Montana

4.8. 2- 2 Distribution of Stream Value Classes at Potential Bridge 4-212

Improvement Sites

4.8. 2- 3 Bridge Improvement Sites in Relation to Major Streams 4-213

and Aquatic Habitats

4.9. 2- 1 Local Impacts to Water Resources Associated With the 4-231

Proposed Small ICBM Program in Montana

4. 9. 2- 2 Summary of Site Impacts to Water Resources Associated With 4-232

Proposed Small ICBM Construction and Operations at Launch Facilities in Montana

4. 9. 2- 3 Locations of Potential Stream Impact During Upgrades of 4-238

Transporter/Erector Roads and Bridges

4. 9. 2- 4 Program-Induced Increases in Stormwater Runoff from 4-241

Malmstrom AFB

4. 9. 2- 5 High Saline-Seep Hazard Areas in the Deployment Area 4-244

4.10.2- 1 Summary of Site Impacts to Geology and Soils Associated 4-256

With Proposed Small ICBM Construction and Operations at Launch Facilities in Montana

4.10.2- 2 Regional Impacts to Aggregate Resources Associated With 4-257

the Proposed Small ICBM Program in Montana

XI

LIST OF FIGURES

4.10.2- 3 Aggregate Resource Production in the Malmstrom AFB Region 4-260

of Influence

4.11.2- 1 Local and Regional Impacts to Air Quality Associated With 4-275

the Proposed Small ICBM Program in Montana

4.12.2- 1 Local Impacts to Noise Associated With the Proposed Small 4-285

ICBM Program in Montana

5. 3. 2- 1 Concentration Contours for Evaporated Hydrazine for 15 Minute, 5-14

30 Minute, and Greater than 60-Minute Time Periods

5. 3. 2- 2 Concentration Contours for Aerosolized Plutonium 5-18

xii

LIST OF TABLES

1.3. 2- 1 Vehicle Usage During Small ICBM Operations Phase 1-5

1.3. 3- 1 Proposed Small ICBM Facilities at Malmstrom AFB, Montana 1-9

1.3. 3- 2 Schedule of Launch Facility Modifications in Montana 1-14

for the Proposed Action

1. 3.4- 1 Summary of Proposed Action and Alternatives 1-19

for the Small ICBM Program at Malmstrom AFB, Montana

1.5. 1- 1 Proposed Action Schedule of Small ICBM Activities in Montana 1-23

1.5. 2- 1 Heavy Construction Traffic and Fuel Use for the Small ICBM 1-24

Program in Montana, Proposed Action

1. 5.4- 1 Total Estimated Annual Direct Employment, Military and 1-26

Civilian, for the Small ICBM Program in the Malmstrom AFB Area By Calendar Year

1. 5.4- 2 Montana Small ICBM Program Construction Resource 1-27

Requirements for Onbase Facilities

1. 5.4- 3 Montana Small ICBM Program Construction Resource 1-28

Requirements for Deployment Area Facilities

1. 5.4- 4 Approximate Areas Disturbed by Small ICBM Facility 1-29

Construction in Montana

3. 1.3- 1 Changes in Employment and Earnings for Selected Sectors, 3-7

Cascade, Fergus, and Pondera Counties, Montana, 1980-1984

3. 1.3- 2 Actual and Projected Populations of Selected Montana 3-10

Counties and Cities, the State of Montana, and the United States, 1970-2000

3. 1.3- 3 Low-Income Housing in the City of Great Falls 3-16

3. 1.3- 4 Size Distribution of Military Family Housing by Rank, 3-17

Malmstrom AFB, 1986

3. 1.3- 5 Great Falls Public Schools Historical Enrollments 1976-1986 3-19

and Projected Enrollment 1987-2000 by Grade Levels

3. 1.3- 6 City of Great Falls Revenues and Expenditures, All 3-29

Governmental Funds, FY 1980-2000

3. 1.3- 7 Cascade County Revenues and Expenditures, All Governmental 3-31

Funds, FY 1981-2000

3. 1.3- 8 Great Falls Public Schools Budgeted General Fund Revenues 3-33

and Expenditures, FY 1980-2000

3. 1.3- 9 Montana State General Fund Revenues and Expenditures, 3-35

FY 1982-1987

3. 2. 3- 1 Water Treatment and Distribution Information for 3-40

Communities in the Region of Influence

3. 2. 3- 2 Wastewater Treatment Facilities Within the Region of Influence 3-43

3. 2. 3- 3 Solid Waste Collection and Disposal in the Region of Influence 3-46

3. 2.3- 4 Characteristics of Montana Electric Utilities 3-52

3. 2. 3- 5 Residential Electricity Rates for Montana Rural 3-53

Electric Cooperatives

3. 2. 3- 6 Electricity Rates for Malmstrom AFB Launch Facilities 3-55

and Launch Control Facilities

3. 2. 3- 7 Natural Gas Consumption in the Region of Influence 3-56

3. 3. 2-1 General Operating Conditions for Different Road Types 3-65

by Level of Service

Xlll

LIST OF TABLES

3. 3. 3- 1 Transporter/Erector Route Mileage by County and 3-71

Ownership

3. 3. 3- 2 Total Transporter/Erector Route Mileage by Surface Type, 3-72

County, and Ownership

3.3.3- 3 Transporter/Erector Route Bridges and Culvert Information 3-73

by County

3.4. 3- 1 Land Uses in the Great Falls Urban Area and Malmstrom AFB 3-79

3.4.3- 2 Existing Land Uses in the Lewistown Planning Area, 1986 3-82

3.4. 3- 3 Existing Land Uses in the Conrad Planning Area, 1986 3-82

3.4.3- 4 Generalized Rural Land Use Within the Region of Influence, 1986 3-85

3. 4.3- 5 Dry-Farmed and Irrigated Cropland Statistics for 3-86

the Region of Influence, 1984

3.4. 3- 6 Land Uses Within the Transporter/Erector Route Corridors 3-87

3.4. 3- 7 Number of Inhabited Structures Within 2,000-Foot Study Areas 3-88

Surrounding Launch Facilities

3. 5. 3- 1 Estimated Recreation Participation in the Region of Influence 3-94

3. 6. 3- 1 Launch Facilities by Landscape Characteristic Province 3-101

in the Deployment Area and Area of Intensive Study

3. 7. 3- 1 Scientific Information Potential of Prehistoric Sites 3-109

3. 7. 3- 2 National Register of Historic Places Sites in the Study 3-110

Area, by County

3. 7. 3- 3 Scientific Information Potential of Historic Sites 3-115

3. 7. 3- 4 Potential National Register-Eligible Buildings on 3-116

Malmstrom AFB

3. 7. 3- 5 Potential National Register-Eligible Bridges That May Be 3-117

Affected in the Montana Study Area

3. 7. 3- 6 Surface Geological Formations in the Deployment Area 3-123

3. 7. 3- 7 Sensitivity Zones for Paleontological Resources 3-125

3. 8. 2- 1 Federal Threatened and Endangered Species Categories 3-131

3. 8. 2- 2 Montana Natural Heritage Program Threatened and 3-133

Endangered Species Categories

3. 8. 3- 1 Waterfowl Commonly Occurring in the Deployment Area and 3-141

Region of Influence

3. 8. 3- 2 Montana Fish of Special Concern That May Occur Within 3-144

the Region of Influence

3. 8. 3- 3 Federal-Candidate and Montana-Recognized Plant Species 3-147

Occurring or Potentially Occurring in the Deployment Area and Region of Influence

3. 8. 3- 4 Federally Listed, Federal-Candidate, and Montana-Recognized 3-150

Animal Species Occurring in the Deployment Area and Region of Influence

3. 9. 3- 1 Selected Hydrologic Data for Major Streams in the 3-157

Region of Influence

3.9.3- 2 Selected Water Quality Data for Major Streams in the 3-158

Region of Influence

3. 9. 3- 3 Major Lakes and Reservoirs in the Region of Influence 3-159

3. 9. 3- 4 Selected Geohydrologic Data for Groundwater Aquifers 3-163

in the Region of Influence

XIV

LIST OF TABLES

3. 9. 3- 5 1980 Water Use in the Malmstrom AFB Region of Influence 3-166

3. 9. 3- 6 Current and Projected Municipal Water Use for Major 3-168

Entities in the Region of Influence

3.10.3- 1 Aggregate Resources in the Deployment Area 3-182

3.11.3- 1 Montana and National Ambient Air Quality Standards 3-190

3.11.3- 2 Air Quality Monitoring Data WMthin the Region of 3-193

Influence for Malmstrom AFB and the Deployment Area

3.11.3- 3 Predicted Baseline Carbon Monoxide Concentrations at 3-194

Selected Receptors for the Years 1985, 1990, and 2000

3.11.3- 4 Regional Air Quality Inventory, 1986 3-195

3.12.3- 1 Noise Monitoring Sites In and Around Malmstrom AFB 3-199

3.12.3- 2 Malmstrom AFB Noise Monitoring Study 3-199

4.0-1 Primary Setting of Impacts to Resource Elements 4-2

4. 1.2- 1 Employment and Population Changes Resulting from the Proposed . . . .4-30

Action

4. 1.2- 2 Employment and Population Effects of the Proposed Action for 4-31

Great Falls, Lewistown, and Conrad, Montana

4. 1.2- 3 Program-Related Demand for Dormitory Modules, Hotel/Motel 4-39

Rooms, and Other Temporary Facilities in the Great Falls Urban Area

4. 1.2- 4 Fiscal Impacts of the Proposed Action with Programmed Housing, . . . .4-54

Housing Option HI, and Housing Option H2, City of Great Falls,

FY 1990-2000

4. 1.2- 5 Fiscal Impacts of the Proposed Action with Programmed Housing, . . . .4-56

Housing Option HI, and Housing Option H2, Cascade County,

FY 1990-2000

4. 1.2- 6 Fiscal Impacts of the Proposed Action With Programmed Housing, . . . .4-58

Housing Option HI, and Housing Option H2, Great Falls Elementary

District No. 1 General Fund, School Years 1990-2000

4. 1.2- 7 Fiscal Impacts of the Proposed Action With Programmed .4-60

Housing, Housing Option HI, and Housing Option H2, Great Falls High School District No. A General Fund, School Years 1990-2000

4. 1.3- 1 Employment and Population Effects of Alternative 1 for 4-62

Great Falls, Lewistown, and Conrad, Montana

4. 1.3- 2 Employment and Population Effects of Alternative 2 for 4-65

Great Falls, Lewistown, and Conrad, Montana

4. 1.3- 3 1990-91 through 2000-01 Great Falls Public Schools Projected 4-71

Enrollment for theProposed Action, Alternative 1, Alternative 2, Alternative 3, and Cumulative Impacts

4. 1.3- 4 Fiscal Impacts of Alternatives 1 and 2 for the City of Great 4-75

Falls and Cascade County, Montana, FY 1990-2000

4. 1.3- 5 Fiscal Impacts of Alternatives 1 and 2 for the Great Falls 4-77

Elementary and High School Districts, School Years 1990-2001

4.1. 4- 1 Population Impacts of the Proposed Action and Peacekeeper 4-79

in Rail Garrison Basing, Great Falls, Montana, 1989-2000

4. 2. 2-1 Peak-Year Program-Induced Impacts on Utility Systems in the 4-92

Region of Influence

XV

LIST OF TABLES

4. 3. 2- 1 Estimated Number of Peak-Hour Vehicle Trips Made by 4-123

Construction and Operations Personnel by Calendar Year

4.3. 2- 2 Heavy Construction Traffic for the Small ICBM Program, 4-124

Proposed Action and Alternatives

4.3. 2- 3 Program-Related, Long-Duration Changes in Level of Service 4-127

Along Selected Road Segments in the Great Falls Urban Area

4.4. 2- 1 Launch Facilities With Significant Rural Land Use Impacts 4-149

for 1,250, 1,425, and 1,795-Foot Explosive Safety Zones (Proposed Action and Alternative 2)

4. 5. 2- 1 Estimated Recreation Use in the Region of Influence 4-160

4.5.2- 2 Estimated Program-Induced Recreation Use in the Region 4-164

of Influence for the Proposed Action and Alternatives

4.6. 2- 1 Proposed Small ICBM Program Landscape Characteristic 4-175

Province Contrast Ratings for North-Central Montana

4.7. 2- 1 Distribution of Launch Facilities Within Prehistoric 4-185

Resource Sensitivity Zones

4.7. 2- 2 Distribution of Potential Road Upgrade Areas in Prehistoric 4-187

Resource Sensitivity Zones

4. 7. 2- 3 Bridges Potentially Eligible for the National Register 4-189

of Historic Places

4. 7. 2- 4 Distribution of Transporter/Erector Road Areas in 4-192

Paleontology Sensitivity Zones

4. 8. 2- 1 Existing Land Cover Categories (Including Major Vegetation 4-207

Types) by Percentage Composition in Potential Disturbance Zones

4. 8. 2- 2 Launch Facilities Within Big Game Severe Wintering Habitat 4-209

4. 8. 2- 3 Potential Locations of Federal-Candidate and 4-217

Montana-Recognized Plant Species in Areas of Direct Surface Disturbance

4. 8. 2- 4 Threatened and Endangered Animal Species Potentially 4-217

Occurring in Areas of Direct Surface Disturbance

4. 9. 2- 1 Program-Related Water Use Within the Malmstrom AFB 4-233

Region of Influence

4. 9.2- 2 Baseline-Plus-Program Water Use of Major Entities Within 4-234

the Malmstrom AFB Region of Influence

4. 9. 2- 3 Stream Segments That Parallel Transporter/Erector Routes 4-240

to be Upgraded

4. 9.3- 1 Program-Related Water Use for the Alternative Deployment 4-245

Scenarios

4.10.2- 1 Program Aggregate Requirements by Calendar Year 4-261

4.11.2- 1 Construction-Related Fugitive Dust Impacts at Selected 4-276

Receptors in Great Falls, Montana

4.11.2- 2 Air Pollutant Emissions Impacts from Deployment Area 4-277

Peak-Year Construction Activities

4.11.2- 3 Predicted Carbon Monoxide Concentrations at Selected 4-278

Receptors for 1985, 1990, and 2000

4.12.1- 1 Typical Noise Levels of Principal Construction Equipment 4-282

4.12.2- 1 Predicted Noise Levels at Selected Receptors 4-286

1985, 1990, and 2000

xvi

LIST OF TABLES

5.3. 1-1 Model Parameter Assumptions 5-10

5.4-1 Summary of Environmental Effects of Abnormal Small ICBM 5-21

Mishaps

6.0-1 Federal Authorizing Actions 6-2

xvii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental documentation for the proposed deployment and peacetime operation of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) at Malmstrom Air Force Base (AFB). The draft EIS supports siting decisions which include the selection of individual missile deployment locations. The analyses described in this document will be presented at public hearings in July 1987. To ensure that public comments are considered in the preparation of the final EIS, comments must be received by August 21, 1987.

PURPOSE AND NEED

In January 1983, President Reagan convened a bipartisan Commission on Strategic Forces (the Scowcroft Commission) to review the purpose, character, size, and composition of the strategic forces of the United States and make appropriate recommendations on ICBM modernization. The Commission’s report was issued in April 1983. Its findings and recommendations were later accepted by the President and Congress. Among its recom- mendations was that the United States immediately initiate engineering design of ". . .a single warhead ICBM weighing about fifteen tons. . .(leading) ... to the initiation of full- scale development in 1987 and an initial operating capability in the early 1990s. . . Hardened silos or shelters and hardened mobile launchers should be investigated now. . ." (Report of the U.S. Commission on Strategic Forces 1983). In the 1984 Department of Defense (DOD) Authorization Act, Congress authorized start-up of the Small ICBM pro- gram at a pace that would permit full-scale engineering development to begin in fiscal year 1987. Congress recommended that the program be pursued as a matter of the highest national priority, with an Initial Operational Capability (IOC) by the end of 1992.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS

The 1986 DOD Authorization Act directed the Air Force to prepare environmental docu- mentation for the Small ICBM using a tiered Environmental Impact Analysis Process (EIAP). Tiering, which involves moving from general to specific environmental analyses as a program evolves, provides the balance and perspective appropriate for each stage of decision-making and is recommended by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations. The Small ICBM Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS), the first tier of the EIAP, was published in November 1986 and was provided to the President, the Secretary of Defense, appropriate congressional committees, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and other interested parties. It provided infor- mation to support three decisions concerning the Small ICBM: (1) the selection of basing mode(s), (2) the selection of the areas where the system can be deployed, and (3) the decision to enter full-scale development of the weapon system. On December 19, 1986, the President announced the decision to proceed with full-scale development of the Small ICBM, and that the Hard Mobile Launcher at Minuteman Facilities basing mode at Malmstrom AFB had been selected for IOC. This EIS analyzes the potential environ- mental impacts of proposed deployment and peacetime operation of the Small ICBM in Montana, and constitutes the final tier of the EIAP for Malmstrom AFB.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

The Small ICBM will be effective against hardened military targets and will be small and light enough to facilitate basing in a mobile mode. The Small ICBM will be a three- stage, solid propellant, single reentry vehicle missile that will be 53 feet long, 46 inches in diameter, and weigh approximately 37,000 pounds. For comparison, the Peacekeeper,

S-1

our most modern ICBM, is 71 feet long, 92 inches in diameter, and weighs 195,000 pounds.

The missiles will be carried and protected by special vehicles called Hard Mobile Launchers (HMLs) that are designed to enhance survivability. These HMLs will be about 105 feet long, 14 feet wide, and weigh approximately 230,000 pounds, including the weight of the missile. The HMLs will be capable of traveling on paved, gravel, and dirt roads, and will have off-road capability.

Summary of Proposed Action and Alternatives

A Proposed Action, three system alternatives, and the No Action Alternative are analyzed in this EIS. The Proposed Action provides for the deployment of 200 HMLs in earth-covered igloos (arched shelters) at 100 launch facilities in Montana. The Proposed Action provides for the construction of military family housing for about 90 percent of new Air Force families. New housing would be constructed on land to be acquired adjacent to Malmstrom AFB. Two additional housing options were also analyzed under the Proposed Action: one would provide half of programmed military family housing and the other would have no new onbase military family housing. System Alternative 1 provides for the deployment of 200 HMLs at 100 launch facilities in pre-engineered buildings and represents the minimum operations personnel requirement of all alternatives. Alternative 2 provides for the deployment of 250 HMLs at 125 launch facilities in a manner similar to the Proposed Action and represents the maximum manpower requirement of all alternatives analyzed. Alternative 3 provides for deployment of 200 HMLs at 200 launch facilities in pre-engineered buildings and has manpower requirements similar to the Proposed Action. Under the No Action Alterna- tive, no Small ICBMs would be deployed at Malmstrom AFB.

The major facilities required for operation and support of the proposed system would be located at Malmstrom AFB and at Minuteman launch facilities (silos) associated with the 341st Strategic Missile Wing. The HMLs would be deployed within expanded fenced areas that surround existing launch facilities in north-central Montana. Currently, 200 launch facilities, located throughout an 8,500-square-mile deployment area, are supported by Malmstrom AFB in Montana. Some HMLs would also be located at Malmstrom AFB for training, maintenance, and repair purposes. To facilitate transportation of HMLs to and from launch facilities, the road system (including bridges and culverts) used for the Minuteman program would be improved where necessary to enhance vehicle clearance and weight-bearing capability. In addition, land would be acquired adjacent to launch facilities to accommodate expansions, and adjacent to the base to accommodate new military family housing and a HML vehicle operations training area. Existing explosive safety restrictive easements would be expanded.

Except for routine maintenance (approximately once a year), the HMLs would remain at the launch facilities in a dash-ready configuration. Under warning of an attack, dispersal of HMLs from the launch facilities could be ordered. The geographically diffused arrangement of the launch facilities would enable the rapid dispersal of the HMLs over a large area. For peacetime transportation to and from launch facilities, the HMLs would be configured to ensure that loading on each axle is below 18,000 pounds.

S-2

Proposed Action

Proposed construction activities would be concentrated in the following areas:

Malmstrom AFB;

The existing Minuteman launch facilities; and

The existing Minuteman deployment area road network.

Malmstrom Air Force Base. Malmstrom AFB is a Strategic Air Command (SAC) base which operates 150 Minuteman II and 50 Minuteman III launch facilities. It is located in north-central Montana, 1.5 miles east of Great Falls (Figure SI). Malmstrom AFB currently serves as the command, training, and operational and maintenance