93rd Congress, 1st Session

House Document Wo. 83-7® (Part 1)

HISTORICAL

STATISTICS

of the United States

COLONIAL TIMES TO 1970

U.S. Department of Commerce BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

BICENTENNIAL EDITION

HISTORICAL

STATISTICS

of the United States

COLONIAL TIMES TO 1970

PART 1

U.S. Department of Commerce Rogers C. B. Morton, Secretary

James L. Pate, Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS Vincent P. Barabba, Director

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

Vincent P. Barabba, Director Robert L. Hagan, Deputy Director James W. Turbitt, Associate Director for Field Operations and User Services

DATA USER SERVICES DIVISION Michael G. Garland, Chief

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Preparation of this edition was under the direction of

William Lerner

Chief, Statistical Compendia Staff

The bicentennial edition of Historical Statistics of the United States is the third in the series of volumes inaugurated in 1949. In both form and content, the bicentennial edition has drawn heavily from, and built upon, the two prior editions. Both the first volume. Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789 to 1945, issued in 1949, and the second volume, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957, issued in 1960, were prepared by the Bureau of the Census with the cooperation of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC). Although the SSRC did not participate in the preparation of the bicentennial edition, its cooperation in the first two volumes was invaluable in establishing those volumes as the basis for continuing work in the field of historical statistics. Similarly, the many individuals and agencies who made important and distinctive contributions to the first two volumes were instrumental in the preparation of the present one. Immediately following the table of contents, therefore, are reprinted the “official roster and credits" pages from the first two volumes. Also, incorporated within the "Acknowledg- ments for Chapter Contributions," under the title of each edition, are the credits to contributors as they appeared in the first two volumes.

Analytical review and editing of text tables was primarily the responsibility of Helen E. Teir, Assistant Chief, Statistical Compendia Staff, Data User Services Division. During the period January 1972 to June 1973, Elma D. Beynon was pri- marily responsible for obtaining the cooperation and assistance of the many subject consultants and for immediate supervision of compilation operations. Suzanne L. Worth assisted Mrs. Beynon and, from July 1973 to November 1974, was re- sponsible for working with consultants and for supervision of the technical and clerical staff. Alma L. Butler, assisted by Kay Swenson, was responsible for final editing and preparation

of manuscript for the printer. The Census Library, Dorothy W. Kaufman, Chief, also lent valuable assistance.

The cooperation of the many contributors to this volume and to the prior editions is gratefully acknowledged. Following the practice established by the prior editions, every data series shown in this volume is, to the extent possible, specifically identified by source as to issuing agency and/or individual author, publication title, publisher, and date of issue. Frequently all five items are shown; frequently additional information is given.

Except for material specified in source citations as "copyright," the tables and text in this volume may be reproduced at will. Appropriate reference to this volume (see citation below) for material reproduced would be appreciated since it may be helpful to users of such material. Permission to reproduce copyrighted material should be obtained directly from the copyright owner.

September 1975

For Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data, see p. A-32.

Suggested Citation

U.S. Bureau of the Census

Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, Bicentennial Edition, Part 2

Washington, D.C., 1975

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D C. 20402

Price $26 per 2 part set (Sold only in sets)

Stock Number 003-024—00120-9

Contents of Parts 1 and 2

Part 1

Page

Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions viii

Introduction xi

CHAPTER

A. Population 1

B. Vital Statistics and Health and Medical Care___ 44

C. Migration 87

D. Labor 121

E. Prices and Price Indexes 183

F. National Income and Wealth 215

G. Consumer Income and Expenditures 284

H. Social Statistics 332

J. Land, Water, and Climate 423

K. Agriculture 449

L. Forestry and Fisheries 526

M. Minerals 564

Appendix: Contributors to This Edition A-l

Time Period Index A-4

Subject Index A-10

Part 2

Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions viii

Introduction xi

CHAPTER

N. Construction and Housing 610

P. Manufactures 652

Q. Transportation 703

R. Communications 775

S. Energy 811

T. Distribution and Services 834

U. International Transactions and Foreign

Commerce 858

V. Business Enterprise 908

W. Productivity and Technological Development. _ . 943

X. Financial Markets and Institutions 968

Y. Government 1067

Z. Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics 1152

Appendix: Contributors to This Edition A-l

Time Period Index A-4

Subject Index A-10

Part 1 Detailed Contents

[Numbers in parentheses following subjects are series numbers]

Chapter Page

Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions viii

Introduction xi

A. Population 1

Area and population (A 1-22) Sex, race, and age (A 23-42 and A 91-104) Urban and rural places and population (A 43-90) Nativity (A 105-142) Median age (A 143-159) Marital status (A 1 60 - 171) Regions (A 172-194) States (A 195-209)

Land area of States and territories (A 210-263) Standard metropolitan statistical areas (A 264- 287) Households and families (A 288-358) In- mates of institutions (A 359-371).

B. Vital Statistics and Health and Medical Care

VITAL STATISTICS 44

Live births, deaths, marriages, and divorces (B 1-4)

Birth and reproduction rates (B 5-41) Fer- tility trends (B 42-106) Life expectancy (B 107- 135) Death rates (B 136-213) Marriage and divorce rates (B 214-220).

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE 65

Health care expenditures and price indexes (B 221- 274) Physicians, dentists, nurses, and medical, dental, and nursing schools (B 275-290) Re- portable disease rates (B 291-304) Hospitals and beds (B 305-358) Hospital admissions and use (B 359-388) Hospital expense, insurance, finan- ces, and personnel (B 389-422) Mental hospitals (B 423-443) Food consumption indexes fB 444- 452) Fluoridation of water systems (B 453-459).

C. Migration

INTERNAL MIGRATION 87

Native population (C 1-24) Intercensal migra- tion (C 25-75) Farm population (C 76-80) Mobility status and type (C 81-88).

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 97

Immigrants by country, occupation, and age (C 89- 142) Annual quota, and aliens admitted, deported, and naturalized (C 143-180) Citizenship status (C 181-194) Population, by country of origin (C 195-295) Passenger arrivals and departures (C 296-331).

D. Labor

LABOR FORCE 121

Components (D 1-10) Status of population (D 11-25) Gainful workers, by sex, by State (D 26-28) Labor force, by age and sex (D 29-41) Percent of noninstitutional population (D 42-48) Female labor force (D 49-74) Gainful workers, by age, sex, and occupation (D 75-84) Unemploy- ment (D 85-115) Employment, by hours and major industry (D 116-151 and D 167-181) In- dustrial distribution of workers (D 152-166)

Major occupation groups, by sex and detailed occupation (D 182-682).

EARNINGS, HOURS, AND WORKING CONDITIONS 146

Output, man-hours, compensation, and labor cost indexes (D 683-704) Average earnings of selected workers (D 705-793) Earnings and hours in se- lected industries (D 794-892) Wage supplements (D 893-912) Earnings in selected occupations (D 913-926) Labor union membership (D 927—

969) Work stoppages (D 970-1021) Labor

turnover (D 1022-1028) Work-injury frequency rates (D 1029-1036).

Chapter Page

E. Prices and Price Indexes 183

Price deflators for gross national product (E 1-22) Wholesale price indexes (E 23-122) Wholesale prices of selected commodities (E 123-134) Con- sumer price indexes (E 135-182) Cost-of-living in- dexes (E 183-186) Retail prices of selected foods (E 187-202) Retail price indexes of electricity, gas, and fuel (E 203-213) Rent indexes (E 214).

F. National Income and Wealth

NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME 215

Gross and net national product and personal in- come (F 1-9) Growth rates of gross national prod- uct and output per employee (F 10-16 and F 31)

Per capita income and product for selected items (F 17-30) Gross and net national product in current and constant prices (F 32-143) Relation of national product, income, and saving (F 144- 162) National income, by type (F 163-191) National income, by sector and legal form of or- ganization (F 192-209) Distribution of aggregate payments (F 210-225) National income, by indus- trial origin (F 226-237) Value added by selected industries, and value of output of fixed capital (F 238-249) National income and persons engaged in production (F 250-261) Personal income and outlay (F 262-296) Personal income, by States (F 297-348).

NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING 1 246

National assets (F 349-376) National balance sheet (F 377-421) National wealth (F 422-469) Private capital stocks (F 470-479) Nonresidential business capital (F 480-527) Residential capital (F 528-534) Value of structures and equipment (F 535-539) National saving (F 540-551) Sources and uses of gross saving (F 552-565) In- dividual and personal saving (F 566-667).

INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF THE U.S. ECONOMY 268

Value of input-output transactions, by industry (F 668-696) Direct requirements per dollar of gross output (F 697-719) Industrial composition per dollar of purchases, by final demand categories (F 720-723).

G. Consumer Income and Expenditures

FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL INCOME 284

Distribution of families and unrelated individuals, by income levels (G 1-30) Distribution of income of families and unrelated individuals ranked by fifths according to income received (G 31-138) Distribution of families ranked by fifths according to income received (G 139-178) Number and me- dian money income of families and unrelated indi- viduals (G 179-256) Distribution of individuals, families, and income, by income levels (G 257-305)

Number and size of families, number of un- attached individuals, and family income before and after Federal income tax (G 306-318) Family income received by each fifth and top 5 percent of families and individuals (G 319-336) Shares of selected incomes received by top 1 percent and 5 percent of population (G 337-352) Median money wage or salary income for specified recipients (G 353-415).

CONSUMER EXPENDITURE PATTERNS 306

Personal consumption expenditures, by type of product (G 416-494) Expenditures of city wage and clerical families of 2 or more persons (G 495- 601) Expenditures of all families of 2 or more persons in cities of 2,500 and over (G 602-696) Expenditures of farm families (G 697-797) -

IV

DETAILED CONTENTS

Chapter Page

Expenditures of families and single consumers com- bined (G 798-848) Food marketings and con- sumption indexes, and nutrients available (G 849- 856) Nutritive value of city diets (G 857-865)

Food used at home, and per capita consumption (G 866-915).

H. Social Statistics

SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE 332

Welfare expenditures under public programs (H 1-47) Workers and payrolls, benefits and bene- ficiaries, under social insurance and related pro- grams (H 48-171) Old-age, survivors, disability, and health insurance, and insurance trust fund (H 172-259) Civil service and railroad retirement (H 260-286) Private pension and deferred profit- sharing plans (H 287-304) Unemployment in- surance and workmen’s compensation (H 305-345)

Public and old-age assistance (H 346-381)

Child health and welfare services (H 382-391) Vocational rehabilitation (H 392-397) Private philanthropy (H 398-411).

EDUCATION 360

Kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school enrollment, and children in special programs (H 412-485) Finances of public elementary and secondary schools and private schools (H 486-519)

Public elementary and secondary school attend- ance and staff (H 520-530) Pupil transportation (H 531-534) Catholic elementary and secondary schools (H 535-544) Public secondary school en- rollment in specified subjects (H 545-571) Federally aided vocational programs (H 572-586)

School retention rates and high school graduates (H 587-601) Years of school completed, by race, sex, and age (H 602-647) Income of males 25 years and over, by years of school completed (H 648-663) Illiteracy (H 664-688) Institutions of higher education (H 689-765) Doctorates (H 766-787).

RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION 389

Church denominations, members, and edifices (H 788-792) Membership of religious bodies (H 793- 805).

RECREATION 393

National parks, monuments, and allied areas (H 806-828) Recreational use of national forest lands (H 829-835) State and local park and recreation areas (H 836-861) Recreational activities and expenditures (H 862-893) Expenditures and

travel to foreign countries, and passports (H 894- 940) Foreign visitors to the United States (H 941-951).

CRIME AND CORRECTION 407

Crimes and crime rates (H 952-970) Homicides and suicides (H 971-986) Police officers killed (H 987-998) Persons arrested (H 999-1011) Crim- inal justice system, expenditures (H 1012-1027) Lawyers (H 1028-1062) U.S. courts (H 1063- 1124) Training schools, detention homes, and Federal and State institutions (H 1125-1154) Executions and lynchings (H 1155-1170).

J. Land, Water, and Climate

LAND AND WATER UTILIZATION 423

Territorial expansion and public domain (J 1-7) Vacant lands and disposal of public lands (J 8-15)

Indian lands (J 16-19) Public land sales and grants (J 20-25) Revenues from public land (J 26- 32) Grazing on national forest and public-domain lands (J 33-40) Oil and gas leases of public- domain lands (J 41-49) Land utilization and ownership (J 50-80) Land drainage and irrigation (J 81-91) Water use and water wells (J 92-109).

CLIMATE 435

Temperature, precipitation, and description of year for climatological stations (J 110-247) Tempera- ture and precipitation for long-record city stations (J 248-267) Tornadoes, floods, and tropical cyclones (J 268-278).

Chapter Page

K. Agriculture

FARMS 449

Population, farms, acreage, and value (K 1-16) Population, farms, acreage, value, and products sold, by State (K 17-81) Farm operator charac- teristics (K 82-108) Farms, acreage, and value, by tenure of operator (K 109-153) Mortgaged farms (K 154-161) Farms and land, by size of farms (K 162-173) Employment, wages, and man- hour indexes (K 174-183) Machinery and equip- ment, fertilizer and lime (K 184-194) Farmers’ cooperatives (K 195-203).

AGRICULTURAL INCOME AND FINANCES 471

Balance sheet of the farming sector (K 204-219)

Gross farm product (K 220-250) Exports and imports (K 251-255) Income, expenses, market- ings, and Government payments (K 256-329) Commodity Credit Corporation (K 330-343)

Price indexes, parity ratios, and farm-to-retail price spreads (K 344-357) Expenditures, farm value, and marketing bill for farm food products pur- chased by civilians (K 358-360) Mortgage debt, loans, interest, and property taxes (K 361-375) Non-real-estate loans and deposit indexes (K 376- 383).

FARM PRODUCTIVITY 493

Supply and utilization of farm commodities (K 384- 391) Value of agricultural raw materials (K 392- 406) Productivity measures (K 407-495).

CROPS AND LIVESTOCK 503

Acreages of harvested crops, and cropland indexes (K 496-501) Acreage, production, price, and stocks for specified crops (K 502-563) Livestock, meat production, dairying, and poultry (K 564- 623).

L. Forestry and Fisheries

FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS 526

Forest land and timber (L 1-9) National forest system areas, timber cut, receipts, and payments (L 10-31) Tree distribution and management programs (L 32-43) Fire control expenditures, forest fires, and burned areas (L 44-55) Raw materials and timber production, trade, and con- sumption (L 56-97) Lumber production and con- sumption, and trade in lumber and logs (L 98-1 50) Plywood, pulpwood, woodpulp, paper and board, turpentine, and rosin (L 151-191) Newsprint, summary (L 192-197) Forest product prices and price indexes (L 198-211) Earnings in timber- based industries (L 212-223).

fisheries 549

Yield and value (L 224-235) Quantity and value of landed catches (L 236-253) Employment, fishing craft, and establishments (L 254-261) Landed catches of principal species (L 262-293) Consumption of products (L 294-304)- Disposi- tion of catch, production and imports, and sponge sales (L 305-320) Prices received by fishermen (L 321-337) Production and value of processed fishery products (L 338-368) Sealskins obtained and whale production (L 369-370).

M. Minerals 564

Summary of operations (M 1-12) Value of products, imports, exports, and consumption (M 13-53) Production indexes (M 54-75) Energy production and consumption (M 76-92) Bi- tuminous coal (M 93-122) Pennsylvania anthra- cite (M 123-137) Petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products (M 138-187) Nonmetals (M 188-204) Metals (M 205-270) Injuries and fatalities (M 271-286) Men working and man-

hours worked (M 287-306).

Appendix: Contributors to This Edition A-l

Time Period Index A-4

Subject Index A-10

V

Replica of “Official Roster and Credits Page” from

Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957

Bureau of the Census

ROBERT W. BURGESS, Director A. Ross Eckler, Deputy Director Howard C. Grieves, Assistant Director Conrad Taeuber, Assistant Director Morris H. Hansen, Assistant Director for Statistical Standards Lowell T. Galt, Assistant Director for Operations Walter L. Kehres, Assistant Director for Administration Calvert L. Dedrick, Chief, International Statistical Programs Office A. W. von Struve, Acting Public Information Officer

HERMAN P. miller, Historical Statistics Project Director

This volume stems from a joint interest by the Bureau of the Census and the Social Science Research Council. It was planned, assembled, edited, and published by the Bureau, with the advice and assistance of the Committee on Historical Statistics appointed by the Council. Many other individuals and agencies cooperated and made significant contributions to this project. General acknowl- edgments for each chapter are presented on p. VII ; other acknowledg- ments frequently appear in the text discussions of the various chap- ters.

The volume was prepared in the Bureau of the Census under the general direction of Edwin D. Goldfield, Chief, Statistical Reports Division. Herman P. Miller served as the Project Director and was primarily responsible for the planning, organizing, and supervising of all aspects of the compilation of the data. Dr. Miller also served

as executive secretary of the Committee on Historical Statistics, handled liaison matters for the Committee, and participated in its selection of experts to serve as consultants. 0. Halbert Goolsby acted as staff assistant.

Morris B. Ullman, who supervised the preparation of the previous volume, Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-191+5, was responsible for planning during the early stages of the project.

William Lerner, Assistant Chief, Statistical Reports Division, was primarily responsible for the planning and supervising of the publica- tion aspects of the volume and for the review and editing of the text and tables. Dorothy M. Belzer was responsible for the tabular presentation of the data and preparation of the material for the printer. The Census Library Branch, Louise H. Clickner, Chief, also lent valuable assistance.

Social Science Research Council

The Committee on Historical Statistics appointed by the Social Science Research Council participated actively in the preparation of this volume, in the extension of the subjects to be added, and in plan- ning the general procedures for securing expert assistance on each subject. As the project was developed the Committee, especially the Chairman, was primarily responsible for consideration of prob-

lems of data selection and format, for general appraisal of the quality of the series suggested for inclusion, and for the selection of consultant- specialists for the various subjects. The Committee as a whole, or through specially qualified members, reviewed the plans for inclusion of specific series and discussed areas of study which presented unusual problems.

Committee on Historical Statistics of the Social Science Research Council

(Advisory to the Bureau of the Census)

G. Heberton Evans, Jr., Chairman

Herman P. Miller, Executive Secretary

Chairman of Department of Political Economy

Bureau of the Census

The Johns Hopkins University

Otis Dudley Duncan

Maurice I. Gershenson

Willard L. Thorp

Associate Director of Population

Department of Industrial Relations

Director of Merrill Center for

Research and Training Center

State of California

Economics

The University of Chicago

Amherst College

Solomon Fabricant

Richard M. Scammon

Harold F. Williamson

Director of Research

Director of Elections Research

Professor of Economics

National Bureau of Economic

Governmental Affairs Institute

Northwestern University

Research, Inc.

Paul Webbink, Vice President, Social Science Research Council, attended Committee meetings and acted as the Council’s representative. Stanley Lebergott, Office of Statistical Standards, Bureau of the Budget, also participated in the meetings.

VI

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

Replica of “Official Roster and Credits Page” from

Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-1945.

J. C. Capt, Director Philip M. Hauser, Deputy Director A. Ross Eckler, Assistant Director Howard C. Grieves, Assistant Director Morris H. Hansen, Statistical Assistant to the Director Robert Y. Phillips, Executive Assistant to the Director Calvert L. Dedrick, Coordinator, International Statistics Frank R. Wilson, Information Assistant to the Director

While this volume has been planned, assembled, and edited in the Bureau of the Census, with the advice and assistance of the Social Science Research Council, many other individuals and agencies contributed to its preparation, directly and indirectly. In some instances, individuals devoted themselves full-time for the period necessary to complete their phase of the project. In other instances, contributions were prepared by individuals while they maintained heavy responsibilities in their own offices. A number of private publishers, authors, and research organizations gen- erously granted permission to use their materials. In some cases, they also made additional contributions in time and energy. General acknowledgments for each chapter are given on p. IV; other specific acknowledgments appear within the text in the various sections of the volume.

This volume was prepared in the office of Morris H. Hansen, Statistical Assistant to the Director of the Bureau of the Census,

under the supervision of Morris B. Ullman, Chief, Statistical Re- ports Section, by Bruce L. Jenkinson, A. Benjamin Handler, and William Lerner. Mr. Jenkinson, Chief, Statistical Abstract Unit, was primarily responsible for the planning and preparation of the report; Mr. Handler, Executive Secretary of the Social Science Research Council Committee on the Source Book of Historical Statistics, was primarily responsible for procurement of data and relationships with the agencies and individuals who contributed to the publication; and Mr. Lerner, Statistician, Statistical Ab- stract Unit, was primarily responsible for the review and editing of the materials as to content, adequacy, and coverage.

Dorothy M. Belzer acted as staff assistant, particularly with respect to tabular presentation, and was responsible for prepara- tion of the materials for the printer. Claire F. Cahill checked all citations by reference to the original published sources and offered many constructive suggestions as to the content of the book.

Social Science Research Council

The Social Science Research Council Committee on the Source Book of Historical Statistics, Advisory to the Bureau of the Cen- sus, played an important role in the preparation of this volume. The Chairman of the Committee and its members gave consider- able time and thought to the review of plans, to advising on proper courses of action, and contributed in other ways. In particular, J. Frederic Dewhurst, Chairman, was in a large measure responsible for the initiation of the project. The completed volume owes much

to his original outline of purpose, coverage, and arrangement. For a detailed statement of the origins of this historical volume, see introductory text.

Through a grant by the Committee on Research in Economic History (Arthur H. Cole, Chairman) of the Social Science Research Council, the full-time services of the Executive Secretary of the Advisory Committee were made available to the Bureau of the Census.

The Social Science Research Council Committee on the Source Book of Historical Statistics (Advisory to the Bureau of the Census)

J. Frederic Dewhurst (Chairman), The Twentieth Century Fund

Shepard Clough Columbia University Arthur H. Cole Harvard University Morris A. Copeland

National Bureau of Economic Research Ernest S. Griffith The Library of Congress Edward P. Hutchinson

University of Pennsylvania

Stacy May

International Basic Economy Corp.

Walter Mitchell, Jr.

Controllers Institute of America Amos E. Taylor

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce Harold Williamson

Northwestern University A. Benjamin Handler (Executive Secretary) Social Science Research Council

R. H. Coats, University of Toronto, attended meetings of the Committee as a representative of the Social Science

Research Council of Canada

VII

Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions *

Chapter A. Population

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970 Consultant Philip M. Hauser, University of Chicago Major contributor Campbell J. Gibson, Population Division, Bu- reau of the Census

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957 Principal consultant Population Division, Bureau of the Census Review consultant Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University Other contributor Donald S. Akers, Bureau of the Census

Historical Statistics . . . 1789-191+5 Material on population prepared by Bureau of the Census staff.

Chapter B. Vital Statistics and Health and Medical Care

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970

VITAL STATISTICS

Consultant Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University

Major contributors Wilson H. Grabill, Bureau of the Census; Michael J. Zugzda, National Center for Health Statistics

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Consultant Herbert E. Klarman, New York University Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

VITAL STATISTICS

Principal consultant Robert D. Grove, National Office of Vital Statistics

Review consultant Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University

Other contributors Joseph Schachter and Mildred L. McKinnon, National Office of Vital Statistics; Wilson H. Grabill, Bureau of the Census

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Principal consultant Maryland Y. Pennell, Public Health Service

Review consultant Antonio Ciocco, University of Pittsburgh

Historical Statistics . . . 1789-191+5

Basic text and series on vital statistics supplied by National Office of Vital Statistics, Public Health Service, Federal Security Agency.

Basic text and series on health supplied by Division of Public Health Methods, Office of the Surgeon General, Public Health Service, Federal Security Agency.

Basic text and series on nutrition supplied by Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics and Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Department of Agriculture.

Chapter C. Migration

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970 Consultant Henry S. Shryock, Jr., Georgetown University

* See also Appendix, p. A-l.

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

INTERNAL MIGRATION

Principal consultants Everett S. Lee and Dorothy S. Thomas, University of Pennsylvania

Review consultant Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University

Other contributor Anne S. Lee, University of Pennsylvania

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Principal consultant Edward P. Hutchinson, University of Penn- sylvania

Review consultant Niles Carpenter, The University of Buffalo

Other contributors Helen F. Eckerson and Gertrude D. Krichefsky, Immigration and Naturalization Service

Historical Statistics . . . 1789-191+5

Material on internal migration, citizenship, and country of birth prepared by Bureau of the Census staff.

Basic text and series for immigration, emigration, and naturalization supplied by Mrs. Helen F. Eckerson, Supervisor of the Statis- tics Section, Division of Research and Education, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Department of Justice.

Chapter D. Labor

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970

Consultant Stanley Lebergott, Wesleyan University

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

LABOR FORCE

Principal consultant Seymour L. Wolfbein, Bureau of Labor Statis- tics

Review consultant Clarence D. Long, The Johns Hopkins University

HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS

Principal consultants H. Gregg Lewis and Albert Rees, The Uni- versity of Chicago

Review consultant Harry M. Douty, Bureau of Labor Statistics

Historical Statistics . . . 1789-191+5

Material on labor force prepared by Bureau of the Census staff.

Basic text and series on wages and working conditions largely sup- plied by Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor, Margaret H. Schoenfeld, Economic Editor, coordinating.

Chapter E. Prices and Price Indexes

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970 Consultant Irving B. Kravis, University of Pennsylvania

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957 Principal consultant Ethel D. Hoover, Bureau of Labor Statistics Review consultants Arthur H. Cole, Harvard University; Geoffrey H. Moore, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

Historical Statistics ... 1 789-1 91+5

Basic text and series supplied by Prices and Cost of Living Branch, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor.

VIII

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOR CHAPTER CONTRIBUTIONS

Chapter F. National Income and Wealth

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970 NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME; NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING Consultant Edward F. Denison, The Brookings Institution Major contributors Nora E. Dollymore, Robert E. Graham, and Allan H. Young, Bureau of Economic Analysis; Raymond W. Goldsmith, Yale University; Stephen P. Taylor, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF THE U.S. ECONOMY

Consultant Albert J. Walderhaug, Bureau of Economic Analysis

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

Principal consultant Richard A. Easterlin, University of Penn- sylvania

Review consultant Simon Kuznets, The Johns Hopkins University Other contributor Raymond W. Goldsmith, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

Historical Statistics ... 1 789-1 955

Chapter prepared by Harlow D. Osborne, Economic Analyst, Na- tional Income Division, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce.

Chapter G. Consumer Income and Expenditure

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970 Consultant Herman P. Miller, Temple University Major contributors Henry Aaron, The Brookings Institution; Roger A. Herriot, Bureau of the Census

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957 FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL INCOME

Principal consultant Selma F. Goldsmith, Office of Business Eco- nomics

Review consultant Dorothy S. Brady, University of Pennsylvania CONSUMER EXPENDITURE PATTERNS

Principal consultant Faith M. Williams, Bureau of Labor Statistics Review consultant Rose D. Friedman, Chicago, Illinois Other contributors Joseph A. Clorety, Anna-Stina L. Ericson, Helen H. Lamale, Bureau of Labor Statistics; Marguerite C. Burk, Agricultural Marketing Service, and Jean L. Pennock, Agricultural Research Service

Chapter H. Social Statistics

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970 SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE

Consultant Ida C. Merriam, Social Security Administration Major contributor Alfred M. Skolnik, Social Security Adminis- tration

EDUCATION

Consultant Abbott L. Ferriss, Emory University Major contributors J. Fred Beamer and C. George Lind, Office of Education

RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION

Consultant Constant H. Jacquet, Jr., National Council of the Churches of Christ

RECREATION

Consultant Marion Clawson, Resources for the Future, Inc.

CRIME AND CORRECTION

Consultants Thorsten Sellin and Marvin E. Wolfgang, University of Pennsylvania

Major contributors James A. McCafferty, Administrative Office of the United States Courts; Paul White, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957 SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE

Principal consultant Ida C. Merriam, Social Security Administration Review consultant Eveline M. Burns, Columbia University Other contributor George Rohrlich, Bureau of Employment Security

EDUCATION

Principal consultant Emery M. Foster, Office of Education Review consultants Helen M. Walker, Columbia University; John Walton, The Johns Hopkins University Other contributors Henry G. Badger, W. Vance Grant, and Rose Marie Smith, Office of Education; Charles B. Nam, Bureau of the Census

RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION

Principal consultant Benson Y. Landis, National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America Review consultant Edmund deS. Brunner, Columbia University

RECREATION

Principal consultant Marion Clawson, Resources for the Future, Inc. Review consultant Thomas C. Fichandler, The Twentieth Century Fund

Other contributor George D. Butler, National Recreation Associa- tion

CRIME AND CORRECTION

Principal consultant Ronald H. Beattie, California Department of Justice, State of California

Review consultant Thorsten Sellin, University of Pennsylvania Other contributors Benjamin Frank, Henry C. Lanpher, James A. McCafferty, Bureau of Prisons

Chapter J. Land, Water, and Climate

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970

LAND AND WATER UTILIZATION

Consultant Marion Clawson, Resources for the Future, Inc.

CLIMATE

Consultant George S. Benton, The Johns Hopkins University

Major contributor Harry Torbitt, National Climatic Center

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

LAND AND WATER UTILIZATION

Principal consultants Ernst H. Wiecking and Hugh H. Wooten, Agricultural Research Service; Walter L. Picton, Business and Defense Services Administration

Review consultant Marion Clawson, Resources for the Future, Inc.

CLIMATE

Principal consultants Helmut E. Landsberg and J. Murray Mitchell, Jr., Weather Bureau

Review consultant George S. Benton, The Johns Hopkins University

Other contributor Milton L. Blanc, Weather Bureau

Historical Statistics . . . 1789-1955

Basic text and series on public lands supplied largely by Branch of Research, Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior.

Basic text and series on land utilization supplied by Bureau of Agri- cultural Economics, Department of Agriculture.

IX

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOR CHAPTER CONTRIBUTIONS

Chapter K. Agriculture

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970

Consultant Earl E. Houseman, Department of Agriculture

Major contributors J. Richard Grant, Department of Agriculture; Arnold L. Bollenbacher and Orvin L. Wilhite, Bureau of the Census

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

Principal consultant Department of Agriculture (Earl E. Houseman, Coordinator)

Review consultant Theodore W. Schultz, The University of Chicago Historical Statistics ... 1 789—1 91±5

Basic text and series supplied by Bureau of Agricultural Economics and Farm Credit Administration, Department of Agriculture, Robert M. Walsh, Special Assistant to the Chief of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, coordinating.

Chapter L. Forestry and Fisheries

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970 FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS

Consultant Robert S. Manthy, Michigan State University Major contributor Dwight Hair, Forest Service

FISHERIES

Consultant Howard Horton, Oregon State University Major contributor William Robinson, National Marine Fisheries Service

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS

Principal consultant Dwight Hair, Forest Service

Review consultant William A. Duerr, Syracuse University

FISHERIES

Principal consultant Harvey L. Moore, Fish and Wildlife Service

Review consultant F. Heward Bell, International Pacific Halibut Commission

Other contributor Edward A. Power, Fish and Wildlife Service Historical Statistics ... 1 789-1 94.5

Series on forestry supplied by Division of Forest Economics, Forest Service, Department of Agriculture.

Series of fisheries supplied by Statistical Section, Division of Com- mercial Fisheries, Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior.

Chapter M. Minerals

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970

Consultant Vivian E. Spencer, University of Connecticut

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

Principal consultants Sam H. Schurr and Elizabeth K. Vogely, Resources for the Future, Inc.

Review consultant Vivian E. Spencer, Bureau of the Census

Other contributor Robert E. Herman, Bureau of Mines

Historical Statistics . . . 1 789-1 9 45

Basic text and series on minerals supplied by Economics and Statistics Branch, Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Hubert D. Reiser and Allan F. Matthews, former and present editors of the Minerals Yearbook, coordinating.

X

Introduction

This volume is the third in the Historical Statistics series issued by the Bureau of the Census as a supplement to the annual Statistical Abstract of the United States.

Statistics are a valuable adjunct to historical analysis. They often clarify and enrich qualitative history and on occasion become important parts of a historical record on their own. However, users of historical data are faced with the paradox of over-abundance and scarcity. A burdensome multiplicity of sources has frequently to be consulted in order to reconstruct one quantitative aspect of a par- ticular subject. Just as often, users are confronted by a discouraging barrenness of data, discoverable only after much costly work and delay.

The objective of the Historical Statistics volumes is to provide a convenient reference source which has two functions, collecting and referring. The collecting function consists of assembling, selecting, and arranging data from hundreds of sources and making them avail- able within a single source. The referring function consists of text annotations to the data which act as a guide to sources of greater detail. The annotations also define terms used in the tables and include essential qualifying statements.

The first volume in this series, Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-19^5, was published in 1949. It provided a wide range of series quantifying various aspects of the development of the Nation. An interim Continuation to 1952 was issued in 1954 to provide data for 1946 to 1952 for the still-active series shown in the first volume. Limited resources confined the scope of the first volume to data most readily available, usually from governmental agency sources. Never- theless, some 3,000 statistical time series were presented.

Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957, issued in 1960, represented a substantial expansion of the data shown in the original volume. It presented more than 8,000 time series, mostly annual, on a greater variety of subjects and for longer time periods. The statistics were also more fully annotated and more precise references to original sources were provided. For a greater number of series, in addition, there were more detailed descriptions of the development and reliability of the data. A Continuation to 1 962 and Revisions was issued in 1965, presenting revisions of data in the basic volume and extensions to 1962 of the more than 6,000 series still current at that time.

Each of the first two volumes was prepared with the cooperation of the Social Science Research Council, the guidance of a distinguished Advisory Committee, and the assistance of numerous scholars, re- search analysts, and particular subject specialists. A description tracing the development of the first two editions appears below under “Origin of Historical Statistics of the United States.”

During the latter 1960’s, the supply of copies of Historical Statis- tics ... to 1957 available for sale from the U.S. Superintendent of Doc- uments was exhausted. The edition had already been through a cycle of five printings and a question was raised concerning the advisability of further printings in the light of a possible new edition. The ques- tion was timely. Experience with the first two editions and their Continuation supplements had shown that a new edition was desirable at 10 to 12 year intervals. The Continuation supplements were at best handy stopgaps for researchers, a serviceable minimum seriously lacking in documentation. As each year lengthened the interval between editions, the “convenience” value of both the Continuation to 1962 and its parent Historical Statistics ... to 1957 diminished. More and more time series were revised in part or entirely replaced. Further, the task for the user of updating the still active, unrevised, series became more burdensome despite the special efforts of the an-

nual Statistical Abstract to maintain a direct linkage to as many his- torical series as possible in its current tables. As a result, a decision was made in 1969 to begin preparation of a new edition.

The plans for the new edition immediately encountered the prob- lem of funding and resources. It was clearly impractical at that time, given the available resources, to consider undertaking a full- fledged new edition of Historical Statistics. The determination to make a start, however, was very strong and more modest objectives were adopted. In effect, the early plans for the present edition proposed